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Management and Leadership Competencies

By: Dr.  Maqbouleh Hammoudeh
The Competencies of Management and Leadership from an Organizational Processes Points of views from an Islamic perspective include the following:
Effective leadership by Islamic Theory (Islamic Theory in management/Assaf 2005) requires that the leadership should be careful to mix and merge the fundamental authority, such as:
a) Authority as a right: It represents the official dimension in the leadership personality.
b) Authority as power, which represents real depth in the leading personality.
c)Authority as capability, which represents the professional dimension in the leading personality. Building such leading personality, however, requires the grouping of a list of basic rules as follows: 
The first rule is that of faith and piety along with a set of total values.
The second rule is that of knowledge and wisdom.I mean by knowledge the evaluative assured knowledge and the information related to any case, whereas wisdom is intended to mean the capability to get to the essence of the consolidated and comprehensive knowledge set, and the ability to understand the applications and what results come out of it, in addition to the total use and benefit of knowledge in the fulfillment of the group's goals and top values. 
This comes in accordance with the strategic planning and the strategic personality for any strategic leader. Wisdom is superior to knowledge and contains it where the knowledge qualifications mix with mental ones. It is a state where the individual capabilities unite with the objective qualifications in a manner that is hard to define, with divine wisdom reigning supreme over everything in life - mankind and universe. Allah says in Sura Al-Baqarah (The Cow)/ aya 269: "God gives wisdom to whomever God wishes; and whoever is given wisdom has indeed been given much good. But no one takes heed except those with understanding"
The third rule is legality, which lends leadership the right to be wherever it likes and practice its responsibilities and duties. This is based on equality in the eyes of the law, where any discrimination is considered a threat to the role of justice, and the existence of the whole leadership. This rule could be defined as the conduct-organizing rules in the group.
 The fourth rule is that of legitimacy. It is a social and political understanding and not a legal one. It is an expression of the state of satisfaction and acceptance employees might show towards the actions of the authorities. It is an end that is hard to fulfill; and the positive relationship between employees and authorities remains of optimum importance.
The fifth rule is that of heroism (power and capabilities).This rule evaluates the ruler based on personal and individual qualities - to be described as a hero among his people, and to have people turn to him to meet their needs and to accept his performance.
The sixth rule is that of consultation based on a creed-based understanding, with regard to policies or plans that require strategic thinking. However, the final decision remains with the leader, since he owns the knowledge and wisdom, and people accept whatever he decides, because he resorts to justice and the values set to achieve their top goals. Allah says in sura Al-Imran (The Family of Imran)/ aya 159: "Seek their counsel in all affairs, and when you have come to a decision place your trust in God alone."
 From another perspective and with regard to people's interests and their direct goals, consultation goes on as direct sharing of views. Allah says in sura Al-Shura (Consultation)/ aya 38: "Whose affairs are settled by mutual consultation". However if they disagree on something, they have to go back to creed to settle the issue. Allah says in sura Al-Shura as well, in aya 10: "In whatever matter you disagree, the ultimate judgment rests with God."
 On the other hand, The leadership , should have a vision  according to the following:
-  Unification between the duality of the current and the futuristic in a way that helps deal with circumstances and immediate variables, while focusing on urgent goals. In this case, there is focus on long term top goals, including the ways and means which guarantee accomplishment. Most important in this unification is guaranteeing the connection between the present and the future in a way that focuses on present goals without hindering the successful completion of future goals and vice versa. This planning must be done first and foremost for the purpose of unifying of the two sides in this duality.
- Unification of the total-partial duality during the planning process means there should be a comprehensive view in the strategic planning process, exactly likethe interests given to processes and variables. This guarantees unification and proper care is given to the partial planning process, although it should be organized in the comprehensive frame and totality.
- Focusing on the role of public authority in defining and drawing basic choices and its agreement with the group mission guarantees the unification between individual and group roles. There should be unification between immediate and futuristic goals and establishment of evidence and programmes to make that happen.
 - Controlling processes is based on the unification quality between internal self control and external social control, in its two dimensions, namely: the official and the unofficial. Internal self-control rests on the set of individual values, those of life, represented in the value of holiness. It is not possible to be sure of the existence of control in any organisation unless it is established on values of this sort – values which define the individual's relationship with himself. As for social control, it is more of a supporting process for the internal control. Whenever the individual awareness slows down, and whatever the factor that slows down the self-motivating power, this social control helps create an atmosphere of external order in the shape of group awareness. In any case, human spirit must be supported by the dominance of group awareness within the unification of the individual-group duality. By the same token, the aim of official supervision is not error hunting for the purpose of penalizing the subordinates; rather, it is to discover and avoid weaknesses. In addition, the aim of this official supervision is to discover initiatives and creativity the minute they take place, so that they can be applied to push the organization towards development and excellence.
- The process of continued scientific research and development: Since scientific research is the key to development, and development is the key to better future.
- Technological processes: Processes technologies should be the focus while taking into consideration production technology and the building of a series of relationships which guarantee the inclusion and development of this technology to be employed in serving production processes.
1.      Assaf, Abdelmutti, I. Theory for excellence, Amman 2005 Dar Wael publisher.
2.      Hammoudeh, Maqbouleh, Islamic values and management practices, Gower publishing , 2012 ,U.K.  under press.
3.      PhD , thesis , Quality and Transformation in the Arab World.

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